Twenty-two patients (mean age 61) with metastasizing, progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium were treated with doxorubicin between 2000 and 2005. Tumors were histologically classified as follicular in 15 patients (68%) and papillary in 7 patients (32%). In addition, nine patients (mean age 51 years) with medullary thyroid carcinoma were treated with doxorubicin between 1997 and 2005. Treatment consisted of doxorubicin: either 8 cycles of 15 mg/m2 weekly or 3 cycles of 60 mg/m2 every 3 weeks, repeated once, depending on response and side effects. The effect of therapy was evaluated by radiographic imaging, [18F] FDG-PET, and bone scans. In patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma, 5% had a partial regression over 6 months, 42% had stable disease for a median of 7 months (range: 1-22), and 53% had continuous progression established over 5 months (range: 1-11). Three patients died before completing chemotherapy. In patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, 11% had a partial regression over 6 months followed by stable disease for 3 months, 11% had stable disease over 7 months, and 79% demonstrated progressive disease established over 5 months (range: 2-12). Doxorubicin can be a valid chemotherapy option, especially for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.