Aim: To examine the possible relationship between body weight and periodontal disease in a sample of the young Iranian population.
Design: An analytical (Case-Control) study.
Participants: Eighty individuals aged 18 to 34 years (40 normal and 40 overweight and obese subjects) were evaluated in this study.
Methods: The periodontal examination consisted of: Plaque Index (PLI), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD) and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist circumference (WC) were used as measures of overall and abdominal fat content. Socio-demographic variables and periodontal disease risk factors (age, gender, education, time elapsed since last dental visit, smoking and diabetes) were evaluated as covariates. The statistical tests used were: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Independent Samples T-test, ANOVA, Exact fisher, Chi-Square test and Spearman's rank correlation (Rsp).
Results: PPD and CAL were significantly higher in the case group compared to control (2.82 +/- 0.4 versus 2.56 +/- 0.36, P < 0.002 and 1.98 +/- 0.5 versus 1.63 +/- 0.335, P < 0.000 respectively). Subjects with a high waist circumference had significant differences of PPD and CAL when compared to normal waist circumference subjects (P < 0.000). There were also positive correlations between measures of overall fat content BMI and PPD (Rsp = 0.33), CAL (Rsp = 0.39) and age (Rsp = 0.42) on one side and the measure of WC and PPD (Rsp = 0.32), CAL (Rsp = 0.44), age (Rsp = 0.48) and PLI (Rsp = 0.3) on the other.
Conclusion: The results indicate that overall and abdominal obesity were associated with the extent of periodontal disease in a sample of Iranian young individuals and therefore prevention and management of obesity may be an additional factor for improving periodontal health.