Resiliency was investigated among well children 6-11 years of age (N = 111) whose mothers are living with AIDS or are HIV symptomatic to determine if mother's HIV status was a risk factor that could effect child resiliency, as well as investigate other factors associated with resiliency. Assessments were conducted with mother and child dyads over four time points (baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups). Maternal illness was a risk factor for resiliency: as maternal viral load increased, resiliency was found to decrease. Longitudinally, resilient children had lower levels of depressive symptoms (by both mother and child report). Resilient children also reported higher levels of satisfaction with coping self-efficacy. A majority of the children were classified as non-resilient; implications for improving resiliency among children of HIV-positive mothers are discussed.