Intrinsic spin Hall effect in platinum: first-principles calculations

Phys Rev Lett. 2008 Mar 7;100(9):096401. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.096401. Epub 2008 Mar 3.


Spin Hall effect (SHE) is studied with first-principles relativistic band calculations for platinum, which is one of the most important materials for metallic SHE and spintronics. We find that intrinsic spin Hall conductivity (SHC) is as large as approximately 2000(variant Planck's over 2 pi/e)(Omega cm)(-1) at low temperature and decreases down to approximately 200(variant Planck's over 2 pi/e)(Omega cm)(-1) at room temperature. It is due to the resonant contribution from the spin-orbit splitting of the doubly degenerated d bands at high-symmetry L and X points near the Fermi level. By modeling these near degeneracies by an effective Hamiltonian, we show that SHC has a peak near the Fermi energy and that the vertex correction due to impurity scattering vanishes. We therefore argue that the large SHE observed experimentally in platinum is of intrinsic nature.