In recent years, novel therapeutic strategies have become available for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. Neutralizing proinflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes and TNF-alpha, in addition to anti-IgE therapies (Omaluzimab) that target higher in the inflammatory cascade, have shown success in the treatment of allergic or autoimmune disorders. Free immunoglobulin light chains, which are produced by B lymphocytes and secreted into serum, might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. Concentrations of free light chains are significantly increased under diverse pathological conditions in humans, and have been linked to the progression and severity of immune diseases. Here we discuss the importance of free immunoglobulin light chains as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease.