Background: Genetic factors that predispose individuals to Behçet's disease (BD) and periodontal disease. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both BD and periodontal disease. The relationship with periodontitis and the pathogenesis of BD has not yet been determined.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relation of the periodontal scores and single nucleotide polymorphism of TNF-alpha-1031T/C with BD compared with healthy controls (HC) and recurrent aphtous stomatitis (RAS). We also sought to determine the effects of periodontal condition and TNF-alpha-1031T/C polymorphism on clinical severity of BD.
Methods: Eighty-two unrelated patients with BD, 42 RAS patients and 77 HC were enrolled in the study. Periodontal status of all subjects was evaluated according to the World Health Organization community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). For genotyping, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was employed.
Results: The mean CPITN was observed to be higher in patients with BD compared with HC and RAS (P < 0.001). TNF-alpha-1031C allele was significantly higher in patients with BD (P = 0.023) and RAS (P = 0.007) compared with HC. Mean CPITN was higher in CC genotype compared with other genotypes (P = 0.004). Moreover, CPITN and CC genotype was found to be correlated with the severity of the disease.
Conclusions: Our data indicate that the TNF-alpha-1031T/C gene polymorphism (CC genotype) is a risk factor for periodontitis, RAS and BD patients and also suggests that long-term periodontal follow-up and education of oral hygiene in patients with BD may help to prevent the development and/or progression of the disease.