Purpose: The mismatch repair system is a DNA repair mechanism that corrects mispaired bases during DNA replication errors. Cancer cells deficient in MMR proteins have a 10(2) to 10(3)-fold increase in the mutation rate. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of mismatch repair genes have been shown to cause a decrease in DNA repair activity. We hypothesized that mismatch repair gene polymorphism could be a risk factor for prostate cancer and p53 Pro/Pro genotype carriers could influence MSH3 and MSH6 polymorphisms.
Materials and methods: DNA samples from 110 patients with prostate cancer and 110 healthy controls were analyzed by single strand conformational polymorphism and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to determine the genotypic frequency of 5 polymorphic loci on 2 MMR genes (MSH3 and MSH6) and p53 codon72. The chi-square test was applied to compare genotype frequency between patients and controls.
Results: A significant increase in the G/A+A/A genotype of MSH3 Pro222Pro was observed in patients compared to controls (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.0-3.5). The frequency of A/G + G/G genotypes of MSH3 exon23 Thr1036Ala also tended to increase in patients (OR 1.57, 95% CI 0.92-2.72). In p53 codon72 Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro carriers the frequency of the AG + GG genotype of MSH3 exon23 was significantly increased in patients compared to controls (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.05-4.34).
Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report of the association of MSH3 gene polymorphisms in prostate cancer. These results suggest that the MSH3 polymorphism may be a risk factor for prostate cancer.