Mice homozygous for the recessive mutation swaying (sw) are characterized by ataxia and hypertonia, attributed to the malformation of anterior regions of the cerebellum. We show that sw is a deletion of a single base pair from the proto-oncogene Wnt-1. The deletion is predicted to cause premature termination of translation, eliminating the carboxy-terminal half of the Wnt-1 protein. Histological examination shows that sw is phenotypically identical to a previously described wnt-1 mutation introduced into mice by gene targeting. Although both mutations in Wnt-1 disrupt primarily the development of the anterior cerebellum, they also exhibit a variability in expressivity such that rostrally adjacent structures in the midbrain and caudally adjacent structures in the posterior cerebellum can also be affected.