In 1991 the Forty-fourth World Health Assembly declared the goal of eradicating dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) by the end of 1995. This article summarizes the recommended strategies for surveillance and interventions in national dracunculiasis eradication programmes. It is based on personal experience with dracunculiasis programmes in Ghana, Nigeria and Pakistan. Three phases are described: establishment of a national programme office and conduct of a baseline survey; implementation of interventions; and case containment. The relevance of dracunculiasis eradication activities to strengthening of primary health care in the three countries is discussed briefly. Similar strategies would help eradicate this disease in the remaining endemic countries.