Traumatic brain injury is a global health concern and is the leading cause of traumatic morbidity and mortality in children. Despite a lower overall mortality than in adult traumatic brain injury, the cost to society from the sequelae of pediatric traumatic brain injury is very high. Predictors of poor outcome after traumatic brain injury include altered systemic and cerebral physiology, including altered cerebral hemodynamics. Cerebral autoregulation is often impaired after traumatic brain injury and may adversely impact the outcome. Although altered cerebrovascular hemodynamics early after traumatic brain injury may contribute to disability in children, there is little information regarding changes in cerebral blood flow and cerebral autoregulation after pediatric traumatic brain injury. This review addresses normal pediatric cerebral physiology and cerebrovascular pathophysiology after pediatric traumatic brain injury.