Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to measure changes in regional blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in patients with primary cerebral lymphoma undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The method employed is to measure the rate of wash-out of a radioactive tracer (68Ga-EDTA) from blood into brain tissue using time-sequence PET imaging. Preliminary studies carried out on patients with more common primary cerebral tumours show that time-activity data are reproducible to approximately 10%. Measurements made in 2 patients with primary cerebral lymphoma treated with initial chemotherapy showed significant changes in permeability in the region of the tumour. Within 5 weeks of the start of treatment, permeability values reached the levels of normal brain. No changes in BBB permeability in normal brain were seen immediately after radiotherapy.