G-CSF therapy with mobilization of bone marrow stem cells for myocardial recovery after acute myocardial infarction--a relevant treatment?

Exp Hematol. 2008 Jun;36(6):681-6. doi: 10.1016/j.exphem.2008.01.010. Epub 2008 Mar 20.


This review of adjunctive therapy with subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) focus on the cardioprotective effects and potential mechanisms of G-CSF and discuss the therapeutic potential of G-CSF. All clinical trials published in peer-reviewed journals identified through PubMed are discussed. G-CSF treatment seems to be safe, and initial unblinded trials in patients with AMI were encouraging. However, larger double-blind placebo-controlled trials have not been able to demonstrate improved myocardial recovery after G-CSF treatment. Current controversies in interpretation of the results include 1) importance of direct cardiac effect of G-CSF vs indirect through bone marrow stem and progenitor cell mobilization, 2) importance of timing of G-CSF therapy, 3) importance of G-CSF dose, and 4) importance of cell types mobilized from the bone-marrow. Cell-based therapies to improve cardiac function remain promising and further experimental and clinical studies are warranted to determine the future role of G-CSF.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation / methods*
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization / methods*
  • Humans
  • Myocardial Infarction / surgery*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor