This review of adjunctive therapy with subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) focus on the cardioprotective effects and potential mechanisms of G-CSF and discuss the therapeutic potential of G-CSF. All clinical trials published in peer-reviewed journals identified through PubMed are discussed. G-CSF treatment seems to be safe, and initial unblinded trials in patients with AMI were encouraging. However, larger double-blind placebo-controlled trials have not been able to demonstrate improved myocardial recovery after G-CSF treatment. Current controversies in interpretation of the results include 1) importance of direct cardiac effect of G-CSF vs indirect through bone marrow stem and progenitor cell mobilization, 2) importance of timing of G-CSF therapy, 3) importance of G-CSF dose, and 4) importance of cell types mobilized from the bone-marrow. Cell-based therapies to improve cardiac function remain promising and further experimental and clinical studies are warranted to determine the future role of G-CSF.