The Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP): program design and demographic characteristics of the population

Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 Apr;51(4 Suppl 2):S3-12. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.12.022.


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) recently was identified as a public health problem requiring a public health prevention approach. The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), initiated in 2000, meets the definition of a public health program, offering surveillance and early detection of CKD. This report aims to detail demographic characteristics of KEEP participants and compare them with characteristics of participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) 1999-2004.

Methods: KEEP is a CKD screening program enrolling individuals 18 years and older with a family history of kidney disease or personal or family history of diabetes or hypertension. Simple descriptive statistics were used in the analysis. For comparison, the NHANES sample was restricted to participants with hypertension or diabetes or a family history of hypertension or diabetes.

Results: The number of KEEP participants grew exponentially over time. Most participants were aged 46 to 60 years. KEEP enrolled twice as many women as men (68.4% versus 31.5%). Minorities were well represented (33.4% African American, 12.3% Hispanic). Almost 58% of participants had some college or more education, and close to 85.0% had a physician. Compared with NHANES, the KEEP population was older and included a larger proportion of women and African Americans. Self-reported hypertension, self-reported diabetes, obesity, and CKD were higher in KEEP (52.9% versus 38.5%, 26.6% versus 9.9%, 43.6% versus 35.5%, and 22.8% versus 17.6%, respectively).

Conclusions: KEEP has been successful in enrolling individuals at risk of kidney disease, evidenced by the high levels of self-reported hypertension and diabetes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chronic Disease
  • Community Health Services / methods
  • Community Health Services / trends
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Female
  • Foundations / trends
  • Humans
  • Kidney / physiology
  • Kidney Diseases / diagnosis
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / ethnology
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Mass Screening / trends
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • United States / ethnology