Connections among specific proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, bFGF, COX-1, COX-2, E-cad, p15, p53, PCNA, TGFbeta3, TUNEL, vWF) in control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, tumor vascularity and PGE2 content were evaluated in colon cancer as related to disease progression and survival. Tumor tissue and adjacent normal colon mucosa were obtained at curative resection in 22 patients. PGE2 concentrations were assessed in tumor tissue and tumor derived blood, splanchnic blood, peripheral venous blood and urine. Host inflammation was determined (CRP, ESR) in relationship to tumor differentiation and stage. Patients survived as expected according to Dukes A-D staging. Growth-related proteins correlated between tumor cells and stroma as well as between protein factors within tumor cells and tumor stroma. COX-2 predicted tumor tissue content of PGE2 (p<0.002), without reflection in tumor derived blood. Systemic inflammation was predicted by p15, TGFbeta3 and Bcl-2 in tumor tissue (p<0.001). p15 and vWF predicted reduced survival in ungrouped patients (p<0.02), while p15, PCNA, TGFbeta3 and vWF predicted reduced survival (p<0.0001) when patient grouping accounted for high tumor content of PGE2. Our results connect systemic inflammation and survival to COX-2 staining and increased PGE2 in colon cancer. Thus, it seems important to understand proximal signals behind upregulation of COX-2 and subsequent PGE2 production in certain tumor cells in colon cancer.