Actin plays important roles in eukaryotic cell motility. During actin polymerization, the actin-bound ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and P i. We carried out differential scanning calorimetry experiments to characterize the cooperativity of the stabilizing effect of phalloidin on actin filaments in their ADP.P i state. The ADP.P i state was mimicked by using ADP.BeF x or ADP.AlF 4. The results showed that the binding of the nucleotide analogues or phalloidin stabilized the actin filaments to a similar extent when added separately. Phalloidin binding to ADP.BeF x- or ADP.AlF 4-actin filaments further stabilized them, indicating that the mechanism by which phalloidin and the nucleotide analogues affect the filament structure was different. The results also showed that the stabilization effect of phalloidin binding to ADP.BeF x or ADP.AlF 4-bound actin filaments was not cooperative. Since the effect of phalloidin binding was cooperative in the absence of these nucleotide analogues, these results suggest that the binding of ADP.BeF x or ADP.AlF 4 to the actin modified the protomer-protomer interactions along the actin filaments.