Cardiovascular disease and health-care utilization in snorers: a population survey

Sleep. 2008 Mar;31(3):411-6. doi: 10.1093/sleep/31.3.411.


Study objectives: We assessed the prevalence of self-reported snoring in the Hungarian population and established whether different types of snoring are associated with cardiovascular disorders and increased health-care utilization.

Design: Cross-sectional study. Door-to-door survey.

Setting: Nationally representative population in Hungary.

Participants: Interviews were carried out in the homes of 12,643 persons. We used the Hungarian National Population Register as the sampling frame and implemented a clustered, stratified sampling procedure. The study population represented 0.16% of the population over the age of 18 years according to age, sex, and 150 subregions of the country.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Measurements and results: Thirty-seven percent of men and 21% of women reported loud snoring with breathing pauses. Hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke were reported by 26%, 3%, and 4% of the respondents, respectively. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke in quiet and loud snorers, as compared with nonsnorers. Multivariate analysis showed an association between loud snoring and hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.58), myocardial infarction (OR: 1.34, CI: 1.04-1.73), and stroke (OR: 1.67, CI: 1.32-2.11) after statistical adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes, level of education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Loud snoring was also associated with measures of health-care use in both sexes.

Conclusions: Snoring is frequent in the Hungarian adult population, and loud snoring with breathing pauses, in contrast with quiet snoring, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and increased health-care utilization.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Delivery of Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Hungary
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Registries
  • Sampling Studies
  • Snoring / epidemiology*
  • Stroke / epidemiology
  • Utilization Review / statistics & numerical data