Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the L1, L2 and L3 serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis. The disease has been in the spotlight recently because of recent outbreaks in Europe as well as the USA. A unique feature of the recent outbreaks has been that most cases have been caused by the L2 strain. Another unique feature of these outbreaks is the fact that most cases have occurred in men having sex with men, and most patients have presented with proctitis. Interestingly, most recent cases have occurred in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients. Usually, the disease is divided into three phases: the primary stage characterized by a self-healing papule, the secondary stage characterized by proctitis or lymphadenopathy and the tertiary stage characterized by lymphedema and anal strictures. Tests used for diagnosis include polymerase chain reactions and compliment fixation tests. The treatment of choice is doxycycline.