Cardiovascular diseases are influenced by inheritance and environmental factors. There is a growing number of genetic variants, which may be included in the genesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD or ischemic heart disease is a set of clinical symptoms caused by inadequate transport of oxygen because of changes in coronary circulation leading to myocardial ischemia. The most common cause of CAD is atherosclerosis of coronary arteries, which primarily narrows or occludes the lumen of coronary arteries or stimulates thrombosis. In this review, the role of the most important polymorphisms in adhesion molecules, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, integrins alpha2beta1 and beta3, E-selectin as well as of inflammation mediators, tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta, in the development of CAD risk and myocardial infarction is discussed. A review of different genotyping results provides an insight into the mechanisms responsible for the disease risk and helps detect the key sets of predictive markers that are clinically informative.