Purpose: Available literature data show that celiac disease (CD) is a frequent cause of recurrent miscarriage. However, data are lacking for pregnancy outcome when the patient is on a gluten-free diet (GFD). A case-control study about the effect of GFD on pregnancy was conducted from 1995 to 2006. A cohort of 13 women (mean age 32 years, range 22-38 years) affected by CD with recurrent miscarriages was observed. In all of them several causes of miscarriage (gynecological, endocrine, hematological, etc.) were excluded. All patients were started on a gluten-free diet and were reassessed throughout a long-term follow-up period to evaluate the outcome of pregnancy.
Results: Six of 13 became pregnant (46.15%) as follows: 1 patient (7.69%) 1 year after GFD was started, 3 patients (23.07%) 2 years after GFD was started, 1 patient (7.69%) after 3 years, and finally 1 (7.69%) 4 years after GFD was started. Moreover, two patients (16.66%) had multiple pregnancies (one had had two childbirths and another had undergone three births within a 7-year follow-up period under GFD).
Conclusions: GFD seems to favor a positive outcome of pregnancy in most CD patients with recurrent miscarriage.