Objectives: The habitual consumption of extremely hot foods and beverages may affect implant treatment modality. Our objectives were to: (i) establish the maximum temperature produced intra-orally while consuming very hot substances and (ii) use these values in an ex vivo model to assess the temperature changes along the implant-bone interface.
Materials and methods: Temperatures were measured using thermocouples linked to a computer. The thermocouple electrodes were attached to the tooth-gum interface of the interproximal areas in 14 volunteers during consumption of extremely hot foods and beverages. The in vivo measured temperature values obtained were used in an ex vivo model of a bovine mandible block with an implant and with an assembled abutment. Temperatures were measured by thermocouple electrodes attached to five locations, three of them along the implant-bone interface.
Results: During consumption of a hot beverage, a maximum temperature of up to 76.3 degrees C was recorded, and a calculated extreme intra-oral temperature of 61.4 degrees C was established. The ex vivo model showed a high correlation between the temperature measured at the abutment and that measured at the abutment-implant interface and inside the implant, reaching maximum temperatures close to 60 degrees C. At the mid-implant-bone and apical implant-bone interfaces, the maximum temperatures measured were 43.3 and 42 degrees C, respectively.
Conclusions: The maximum temperatures measured at the implant-bone interfaces reached the temperature threshold of transient changes in bone (42 degrees C). The results of this study support the notion that intra-oral temperatures, developed during the consumption of very hot substances, may be capable of damaging peri-implant tissues.