Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of orthotopic human glioma models and its relevance for the study of anti-glioma therapy

Brain Pathol. 2008 Jul;18(3):423-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2008.00141.x. Epub 2008 Mar 26.


Most human gliomas are characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth in the brain parenchyma. Partly because of this characteristic growth pattern, gliomas are notorious for their poor response to current therapies. Many animal models for human gliomas, however, do not display this diffuse infiltrative growth pattern. Furthermore, there is a need for glioma models that represent adequate genocopies of different subsets of human gliomas (e.g., oligodendrogliomas). Here, we assessed the intracerebral growth patterns and copy number changes [using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA)/comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)] of 15 human glioma lines in nude mice. Most xenografts present with compact growing lesions intracerebrally. Only the E98 and, to a lesser degree, E106 xenograft lines (propagated through subcutaneous growth) consistently produced intracerebral tumors, displaying diffuse infiltrative growth in the brain parenchyma. In contrast, four xenograft lines (E434, E468, E473 and E478), established by direct intracerebral inoculation of human glioma cells and serially propagated intracerebrally, consistently showed extensive diffuse infiltration throughout the brain. After several passages, the neoplastic cells still carry typical chromosomal aberrations [(-1p/-19q in oligodendroglioma, +7/-10 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)]. Especially these latter four models and the E98 line thus represent adequate geno- and phenocopies of human gliomas and form an attractive platform to investigate different therapeutic approaches in a preclinical setting.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Glioma / genetics*
  • Glioma / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
  • Phenotype
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A