Setting: Tygerberg district, Western Cape Province, South Africa.
Objective: To measure the agreement of two interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults and children in a setting highly endemic for tuberculosis (TB).
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Results: In HIV-infected adults (n=20) and children (n=23), tests yielded discordant results, with 61% of individuals testing positive with T-SPOT.TB, 41% with TST and 28% with QuantiFERON TB Gold (QTF). In children, there was poor agreement between the TST and T-SPOT.TB (kappa [kappa]=-0.02), but moderate agreement between the TST and QTF (kappa=0.44). In adults, there was moderate agreement between the TST and T-SPOT.TB (kappa=0.43), and the TST and QTF (kappa = 0.46). In children and adults, there was fair agreement between the T-SPOT.TB and QTF (kappa=0.33). Twenty per cent of adults had >or=1 indeterminate IGRA results.
Conclusions: There is poor to moderate agreement between the TST and IGRAs in HIV-infected adults and children. T-SPOT.TB may have improved sensitivity for detection of M. tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals compared to the QTF and the TST. In HIV-infected individuals, IGRA test properties are affected by test cut-off point and nil control responses.