The role of B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells

Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). Mar-Apr 2008;56(2):77-83. doi: 10.1007/s00005-008-0014-5. Epub 2008 Mar 31.

Abstract

B lymphocytes are regarded as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) despite their primary role in humoral immunity. Over the last two decades, studies designed to define the role of the B cells as APCs have generated discrepant results, showing that B cells are either unnecessary or required for T cell priming and either immunogenic or tolerogenic to T cells. The reasons for these discrepancies are not clear. Here we review mechanisms regulating B cell antigen presentation and the data derived from the major studies conducted by different groups representing each school of thought. In general it is clear that B cells process and present specific and nonspecific antigens differently. The presentation of specific antigen through the B cell antigen receptor occurs with very high efficiency and is associated with B cell activation, resulting in the activation of cognate T cells. In contrast, the presentation of nonspecific antigen by B cells is minimized and dissociated from B cell activation. As a result, B cells inactivate T cells that recognize nonspecific antigenic epitopes presented by B cells, or they induce regulatory T cell differentiation or expansion. These mechanisms serve to ensure effective production of high-affinity antigen-specific antibodies but minimize the production of nonspecific antibodies and autoantibodies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation*
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / physiology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / physiology*
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / physiology
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Activation

Substances

  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II