Guard cells can integrate and process multiple complex signals from the environment and respond by opening and closing stomata in order to adapt to the environmental signal. Over the past several years, considerable research progress has been made in our understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as essential signal molecules that mediate abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. In this review, we discuss hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and signalling, H2O2-induced gene expression, crosstalk and the specificity between ABA and H2O2 signalling, and the cellular mechanism for ROS sensing in guard cells. This review focuses especially on the points of connection between ABA and H2O2 signalling in guard cells. The fundamental progress in understanding the role of ABA and ROS in guard cells will continue to provide a rational basis for biotechnological improvements in the development of drought-tolerant crop plants with improved water-use efficiency.