Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2008 Apr;24(4):459-64.
doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2007.10.012.

Influence of Knee Flexion Angle on Femoral Tunnel Characteristics When Drilled Through the Anteromedial Portal During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Affiliations

Influence of Knee Flexion Angle on Femoral Tunnel Characteristics When Drilled Through the Anteromedial Portal During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Georges Basdekis et al. Arthroscopy. .

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of knee flexion angle for drilling the femoral tunnel during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction via the anteromedial (AM) portal on resulting tunnel orientation and length.

Methods: In 8 fresh cadaveric knees, the ACL was excised and 2.4-mm guidewires were drilled through the AM bundle footprint using a 5-mm endofemoral aimer via the AM portal. We compared knee flexion angles of 90 degrees , 110 degrees , 130 degrees , and maximum flexion. Anteroposterior-, lateral-, and tunnel-view radiographs were measured to determine tunnel orientation, o'clock position, and direct measurement to determine intra-osseous tunnel length.

Results: With regard to tunnel orientation, each increase in knee flexion angle resulted in significantly more horizontal tunnel both on the anteroposterior view and on the lateral view. While on the tunnel view, the pin became more vertical with knee flexion. At 90 degrees , tunnel length was significantly less (27 +/- 9 mm) than at greater angles, and the guidewires were either resting against the posterior cortex or breaching it.

Conclusions: The results of this study show the knee flexion angle influences the position of the femoral drilling. It appears in the current study that 110 degrees is optimum, while the 90 degrees pin leads to short tunnel and is so close to the posterior wall there are high risks of posterior wall blow out when drilling the tunnel at its final diameter. Also, 130 degrees of knee flexion is responsible for high tunnel acuity and, finally, maximum flexion being quite variable from one specimen to another cannot be recommended.

Clinical relevance: Tunnels drilled through the AM portal at 90 degrees are at risk of back wall blow out.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 36 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback