Impact of resting heart rate on outcomes in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease: findings from the INternational VErapamil-SR/trandolapril STudy (INVEST)

Eur Heart J. 2008 May;29(10):1327-34. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehn123. Epub 2008 Mar 29.

Abstract

Aim: To determine the relationship between resting heart rate (RHR) and adverse outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients treated for hypertension with different RHR-lowering strategies.

Methods and results: Time to adverse outcomes (death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal-stroke) and predictive values of baseline and follow-up RHR were assessed in INternational VErapamil-SR/trandolapril STudy (INVEST) patients randomized to either a verapamil-SR (Ve) or atenolol (At)-based strategy. Higher baseline and follow-up RHR were associated with increased adverse outcome risks, with a linear relationship for baseline RHR and J-shaped relationship for follow-up RHR. Although follow-up RHR was independently associated with adverse outcomes, it added less excess risk than baseline conditions such as heart failure and diabetes. The At strategy reduced RHR more than Ve (at 24 months, 69.2 vs. 72.8 beats/min; P < 0.001), yet adverse outcomes were similar [Ve 9.67% (rate 35/1000 patient-years) vs. At 9.88% (rate 36/1000 patient-years, confidence interval 0.90-1.06, P = 0.62)]. For the same RHR, men had a higher risk than women.

Conclusion: Among CAD patients with hypertension, RHR predicts adverse outcomes, and on-treatment RHR is more predictive than baseline RHR. A Ve strategy is less effective than an At strategy for lowering RHR but has a similar effect on adverse outcomes.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Indoles / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Verapamil / therapeutic use*

Substances

  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Indoles
  • trandolapril
  • Verapamil