The Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Study (BRAZPD) was launched in December 2004 aiming to collect data monthly and continuously from a representative cohort, allowing for a continuous snapshot of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) reality in the country. This is an observational study of PD patients comprising follow-up from December 2004 to February 2007 (mean follow-up of 13.6 months-ranging from 1 to 26 months) in 114 Brazilian centers. All centers report data through a central web-based database. After an initial baseline retrospective data collection, all patients are followed prospectively every month until they drop out from the PD program. Total number of patients recruited until February 2007 was 3226 (2094 incident patients). Mean age was 54+/-19 years (37% above 65 years old), with 55% females and 64% Caucasians. The more frequent causes of renal failure were diabetic nephropathy (34%), renal vascular disease associated with hypertension (26%), and glomerulopathies (13%). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (76%), diabetes (36%), and ischemic heart disease (23%). Automated PD (APD) was the modality utilized in 53%. The estimated overall peritonitis rate was 1 episode per 30 patient-months (most frequently due to Staphylococcus aureus). The total dropout rate was 33%, mainly due to deaths, whereas 20% of dropouts were due to renal transplant. The gross mortality was 17.6% and the main causes of mortality were cardiovascular diseases (40%) and infections (15%). The initial results of this first Brazilian PD registry provide a unique opportunity to develop future clinical studies addressing specific PD questions in the Brazilian reality and context.