Heteronuclear J cross-polarisation in liquids using amplitude and phase modulated mixing sequences

J Biomol NMR. 2008 Apr;40(4):277-83. doi: 10.1007/s10858-008-9232-8. Epub 2008 Apr 1.


The design of mixing sequences for heteronuclear J cross-polarisation in the liquid state has been examined employing supercycles of amplitude/phase modulated RF pulses. The Fourier coefficients defining the modulation profiles of the pulses were optimised numerically so as to achieve efficient magnetisation transfer within the desired range of resonance offsets. A variety of supercycles, pulsewidths and RF field strengths were considered in implementing heteronuclear anisotropic and isotropic mixing sequences. The coherence transfer characteristics of the sequences obtained were evaluated by numerical simulations. The experimental performances of the sequences were tested by measurements carried out on a moderate sized protein at 750 MHz. The results presented demonstrate that the approach adopted in this study can be employed effectively to tailor, as per the experimental requirements and constraints, the RF-field modulation profiles of the pulses constituting the mixing scheme for generating heteronuclear J cross-polarisation sequences.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods*
  • Proteins / chemistry*
  • Reproducibility of Results


  • Proteins