Physical activity elicits physiological responses in skeletal muscle that result in a number of health benefits, in particular in disease states, such as type 2 diabetes. An acute bout of exercise/muscle contraction improves glucose homeostasis by increasing skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training induces alterations in the expression of metabolic genes, such as those involved in muscle fiber type, mitochondrial biogenesis, or glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein levels. A primary goal of exercise research is to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate these important metabolic and transcriptional events in skeletal muscle. In this review, we briefly summarize the current literature describing the molecular signals underlying skeletal muscle responses to acute and chronic exercise. The search for possible exercise/contraction-stimulated signaling proteins involved in glucose transport, muscle fiber type, and mitochondrial biogenesis is ongoing. Further research is needed because full elucidation of exercise-mediated signaling pathways would represent a significant step toward the development of new pharmacological targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes.