We evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and activity of B-cell depletion with rituximab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, receiving two courses of rituximab 6 months apart, and followed for a total of 72 weeks. No serious adverse events were noted; events were limited to mild-to-moderate infusion-associated events, which tended to decrease with subsequent infusions. Infections were also mild or moderate, and none led to withdrawal. Fewer new gadolinium-enhancing or T2 lesions were seen starting from week 4 and through week 72. An apparent reduction in relapses was also observed over the 72 weeks compared with the year before therapy.