Objectives: Enuresis and nocturia are common among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of enuresis and nocturia among children and young adults with SCA and determine the relationship, if any, between these symptoms and SCA-related morbidity.
Methods: A prospective infant cohort of African-American children with SCA was previously established from the Cooperative Study for Sickle Cell Disease. Included in this cohort were children with SCA enrolled before 6 months of age for whom questions about enuresis and nocturia had been completed.
Results: A total of 213 participants were included in this analysis. Sixty-nine individuals (33%) experienced enuresis over the course of the study. No children under 6 years of age were asked about enuresis. Thereafter, enuresis was most prevalent between the ages of 6 and 8 years (42%) and continued to be common in young adults ages 18 to 20 years (9%). Seventy-nine percent of individuals reported a history of nocturia. There was no association between enuresis or nocturia and an increased rate of pain or acute chest syndrome (ACS) episodes.
Conclusions: Enuresis and nocturia are common in children with SCA. Among adults with SCA, enuresis and nocturia are more persistent compared with adults in the general population. Enuresis and nocturia are not associated with an increased rate of pain or ACS.