Disposition of styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer in female rats: single dose intravenous and gavage studies

Toxicol Lett. 2008 Apr 21;178(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.01.016. Epub 2008 Feb 2.


Styrene-acrylonitrile trimer (SAN Trimer), a mixture of six isomers (four isomers of 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-alpha-methyl-1-naphthaleneacetonitrile [THAN] and two isomers of 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthaleneproprionitrile [THNP]), is a by-product of a specific production process of styrene-acrylonitrile polymer. Disposition studies in female rats were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic behavior of [3H]SAN Trimer following a single intravenous administration (26 mg/kg) to nonpregnant rats; a single gavage administration (nominal doses of 25 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg, or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) to nonpregnant rats; and a single gavage administration (nominal dose of 200 mg/kg in corn oil) to pregnant and lactating rats. SAN Trimer was rapidly eliminated from blood (T1/2 approximately 1h) following a single intravenous dose and following single oral doses (T1/2 approximately 3-4h). SAN Trimer was also rapidly excreted in the urine and feces following single oral doses, while total radioactivity was cleared more slowly. In pregnant rats, the concentrations of both radioactivity and SAN Trimer 2h after dosing were highest in the blood, followed by the placenta, with the lowest levels in the fetus. In lactating rats, the concentrations of both radioactivity and SAN Trimer were higher in milk than in maternal blood. Total radioactivity and SAN Trimer blood concentrations in nonpregnant, pregnant, and lactating rats were both higher in lactating rats compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Feces / chemistry
  • Female
  • Fetus / metabolism
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Isomerism
  • Lactation / metabolism
  • Maternal-Fetal Exchange*
  • Milk / chemistry
  • Nitriles / blood
  • Nitriles / pharmacokinetics*
  • Nitriles / urine
  • Placenta / chemistry
  • Pregnancy
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Styrene


  • Nitriles
  • Styrene