Dissemination of ESBL and Qnr determinants in Enterobacter cloacae in Algeria

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Jul;62(1):133-6. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn145. Epub 2008 Apr 1.


Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates collected from Algerian hospitals and to verify the association with qnr genes.

Methods: MICs were determined by Etest for isolates giving positive double-disc synergy tests, and all isolates were screened by PCR and sequenced, respectively, for bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), bla(SHV) and bla(VEB) genes and for qnr genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS), using specific primers.

Results: The prevalence of ESBLs was 25/141 (17.7%) with 11, 9, 4 and 1 isolates testing positive for genes encoding CTX-M-15, CTX-M-3, SHV-12 and VEB-1, respectively. Two SHV-12 producers and one CTX-M-15 producer expressed QnrS1, one isolate produced CTX-M-15 and QnrB1 and one SHV-12 producer co-expressed QnrS1 and QnrB4. qnrA was not detected in our collection, and qnr alleles were not detected in non-ESBL-producing isolates.

Conclusions: SHV-12, QnrS1, QnrB1 and QnrB4 were reported for the first time in Algeria. This study also described a co-expression of qnrS1 and qnrB4 by an SHV-12 producer isolate.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algeria
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemistry
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial / genetics*
  • Enterobacter cloacae / drug effects
  • Enterobacter cloacae / genetics*
  • Enterobacter cloacae / isolation & purification
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / microbiology
  • Genes, Bacterial*
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Quinolones / pharmacology*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • beta-Lactamases / genetics*
  • beta-Lactams / pharmacology*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Quinolones
  • beta-Lactams
  • beta-Lactamases