Regular Tai Chi Chuan exercise improves T cell helper function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an increase in T-bet transcription factor and IL-12 production

Br J Sports Med. 2009 Oct;43(11):845-50. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.043562. Epub 2008 Apr 2.

Abstract

Background: Exercise has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); its benefit to immune function, however, remains to be determined.

Objective: This study investigated the effect of a 12-week course of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on T cell helper (Th) reaction in patients with type 2 DM.

Methods: A case-control study was performed in 30 pairs of patients with type 2 DM and normal age-matched adults. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, mediators (interleukin (IL)-12, IL-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)beta) and transcription factors (T-bet, GATA-3 and FoxP3) of Th1/Th2/T regulatory (Treg) reaction were measured before and after a 12-week TCC exercise programme.

Results: Fasting glucose and HbA1c levels in the patients with type 2 DM were significantly higher than in age-matched controls before exercise. After TCC exercise, HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 DM significantly decreased (7.59 (0.32)% vs 7.16 (0.22)%; p = 0.047) and blood levels of IL-12 increased significantly (5.96 (1.10) vs 12.96 (3.07); p = 0.035). To study the molecular Th1/Th2/Treg reaction, patients with type 2 DM were found to have lower T-bet but not GATA-3 or FoxP3 expression than normal controls before TCC exercise. After the 12-week TCC exercise T-bet expression significantly increased in patients with type 2 DM.

Conclusions: A 12-week TCC exercise programme decreases HbA1c levels along with an increase in the Th1 reaction. A combination of TCC with medication may provide an even better improvement in both metabolism and immunity of patients with type 2 DM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Mass Index
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / immunology*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-12 / biosynthesis*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • T-Box Domain Proteins / metabolism*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology*
  • Tai Ji*
  • Th1 Cells / metabolism
  • Th2 Cells / metabolism

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • T-Box Domain Proteins
  • T-box transcription factor TBX21
  • Interleukin-12