Nitric oxide is involved in appetitive but not aversive olfactory learning in the land mollusk Limax valentianus

Learn Mem. 2008 Apr 2;15(4):229-32. doi: 10.1101/lm.936508. Print 2008 Apr.


The land slug Limax performs both aversive and appetitive olfactory learning, and we investigated neurotransmitters involved in each type of learning. Slugs were conditioned by presenting a vegetable juice (appetitive conditioning) or a mixture of vegetable juice and quinidine (aversive conditioning), and the latency to reach the juice became shorter (appetitive conditioning) or longer (aversive conditioning) after conditioning. L-NAME injected either before conditioning or testing blocked the reduction in latency in appetitive conditioning but had no significant effects in aversive conditioning. 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine had no significant effects in appetitive conditioning. These results suggest different mechanisms for appetitive and aversive learning.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Appetitive Behavior / drug effects
  • Appetitive Behavior / physiology*
  • Avoidance Learning / drug effects
  • Avoidance Learning / physiology*
  • Mollusca / physiology*
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester / pharmacology
  • Nitric Oxide / physiology*
  • Quinidine
  • Smell / physiology*
  • Vegetables


  • Nitric Oxide
  • Quinidine
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester