Molecular targeting for apoptosis induction is being developed for better treatment of cancer. Downregulation of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is linked to colorectal tumorigenesis. Re-expression of 15-LOX-1 in cancer cells by pharmaceutical agents induces apoptosis. Antitumorigenic agents can also induce apoptosis via other molecular targets. Whether restoring 15-LOX-1 expression in cancer cells is therapeutically sufficient to inhibit colonic tumorigenesis remains unknown. We tested this question using an adenoviral delivery system to express 15-LOX-1 in in vitro and in vivo models of colon cancer. We found that (i) the adenoviral vector 5/3 fiber modification enhanced 15-LOX-1 gene transduction in various colorectal cancer cell lines, (ii) the adenoviral vector delivery restored 15-LOX-1 expression and enzymatic activity to therapeutic levels in colon cancer cell lines, and (iii) 15-LOX-1 expression downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and BcL-XL, activated caspase-3, triggered apoptosis, and inhibited cancer cell survival in vitro and the growth of colon cancer xenografts in vivo. Thus, selective molecular targeting of 15-LOX-1 expression is sufficient to re-establish apoptosis in colon cancer cells and inhibit tumorigenesis. These data provide the rationale for further development of therapeutic strategies to target 15-LOX-1 molecularly for treating colonic tumorigenesis.