The host response to adenovirus, helper-dependent adenovirus, and adeno-associated virus in mouse liver

Mol Ther. 2008 May;16(5):931-41. doi: 10.1038/mt.2008.37. Epub 2008 Mar 18.


Understanding host responses to viral gene therapy vectors is necessary for the development of safe and efficacious in vivo gene transfer agents. We describe the use of high-density spotted complementary DNA microarrays in monitoring the in vivo host transcriptional responses in mouse liver upon administration of either a "first-generation"adenoviral (Ad) vector, a helper-dependent "gutless" adenoviral (HD) vector, or an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector containing human factor IX (hFIX) expression cassettes. Since HD and AAV do not contain any viral genes, they allow us to assess the host response to the viral capsid and packaged nonviral DNA in whole animals. Comparison of the host response to Ad and HD helps assess the importance of leaky adenoviral gene expression. While all three vectors induced characteristic temporally sequenced programs of gene expression, the gene expression programs induced by the Ad and HD adenovirus vectors were remarkably similar, including the induction of a prominent type I interferon (IFN)-dependent cluster within 6 hours of administration. In contrast, the AAV-based vector caused far fewer alterations of host-gene expression. Our results indicate that recognition of the Ad capsid or double-stranded DNA (of nonviral origin) in the vector elicits a robust type I IFN response that is, however, not elicited by AAV-derived vector transduction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation
  • Capsid / metabolism
  • Dependovirus / genetics*
  • Factor IX / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Transfer Techniques*
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Helper Viruses / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Interferon Type I / metabolism
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Signal Transduction


  • Interferon Type I
  • Factor IX