Comprehensive information on neurodevelopmental outcome in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease is still limited. Intellectual performance (IP) and motor performance (MP) were systematically assessed in 27 patients at a median age of 14.1 years (range 6.5-17) and 6 years (range 0.5-12.7) after renal transplantation (RTPL). IP was analyzed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) in 25 patients and by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children in two patients. MP was evaluated by the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment. Median full- scale intelligent quotient (FSIQ) was 97 (range 49-133). Twenty-one patients had an FSIQ >or= 85 (i.e. >or= mean-1 standard deviation). The five patients with neurological comorbidity had a median FSIQ of 81 (range 49-101). Verbal IQ (VIQ) (median 104; range 50-146) was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than performance IQ (PIQ) (median 88; range 48-117). The PIQ was significantly lower compared with controls (p < 0.007), and patients scored significantly lower compared with controls in five of 11 subtests of the Wechsler Scale. All MP tasks were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in controls, and also in children without neurological comorbidity. Socioeconomic status was significantly correlated with FSIQ (p = 0.03). IP after RTPL was within the normal range for the majority of children. PIQ was lower compared with VIQ, and MP was significantly affected in all children after RTPL.