The arsenal of therapeutic weapons against hematological malignancies is constantly growing. Unravelling the secrets of tumor immunobiology has allowed researchers to manipulate the immune system in order to stimulate tumor immunity or to bypass tumor-induced immunosuppression. An area of great interest is active specific immunotherapy where dendritic cell (DC)-based therapeutic vaccines for cancer have definitely grabbed the spotlight. DC are intensively investigated as cellular adjuvants to harness the immune system to fight off cancer by augmenting the number and effector functions of tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In the present review we present a comprehensive synopsis and an update of the use of DC in hematological malignancies. In the future, more basic research as well as more clinical trials are warranted to fully establish the value of DC vaccination as an adjuvant therapy for modern hematological oncology.