Intake of fruit, vegetables, and fruit juices and risk of diabetes in women

Diabetes Care. 2008 Jul;31(7):1311-7. doi: 10.2337/dc08-0080. Epub 2008 Apr 4.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetable, and fruit juice intake and development of type 2 diabetes.

Research design and methods: A total of 71,346 female nurses aged 38-63 years who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes in 1984 were followed for 18 years, and dietary information was collected using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Diagnosis of diabetes was self-reported.

Results: During follow-up, 4,529 cases of diabetes were documented, and the cumulative incidence of diabetes was 7.4%. An increase of three servings/day in total fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with development of diabetes (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio 0.99 [95% CI 0.94-1.05]), whereas the same increase in whole fruit consumption was associated with a lower hazard of diabetes (0.82 [0.72-0.94]). An increase of 1 serving/day in green leafy vegetable consumption was associated with a modestly lower hazard of diabetes (0.91 [0.84-0.98]), whereas the same change in fruit juice intake was associated with an increased hazard of diabetes (1.18 [1.10-1.26]).

Conclusions: Consumption of green leafy vegetables and fruit was associated with a lower hazard of diabetes, whereas consumption of fruit juices may be associated with an increased hazard among women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Beverages
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / prevention & control*
  • Diet*
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Fruit*
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nurses
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vegetables*