Structure and function of NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase: key enzymes that regulate the intracellular balance of NAD(H) and NADP(H)

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008 Apr;72(4):919-30. doi: 10.1271/bbb.70738. Epub 2008 Apr 7.


The functions of NAD(H) (NAD(+) and NADH) and NADP(H) (NADP(+) and NADPH) are undoubtedly significant and distinct. Hence, regulation of the intracellular balance of NAD(H) and NADP(H) is important. The key enzymes involved in the regulation are NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase. In 2000, we first succeeded in identifying the gene for NAD kinase, thereby facilitating worldwide studies of this enzyme from various organisms, including eubacteria, archaea, yeast, plants, and humans. Molecular biological study has revealed the physiological function of this enzyme, that is to say, the significance of NADP(H), in some model organisms. Structural research has elucidated the tertiary structure of the enzyme, the details of substrate-binding sites, and the catalytic mechanism. Research on NAD kinase also led to the discovery of archaeal NADP phosphatase. In this review, we summarize the physiological functions, applications, and structure of NAD kinase, and the way we discovered archaeal NADP phosphatase.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Intracellular Space / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • NAD / metabolism*
  • NADP / metabolism*
  • Nucleotidases / chemistry*
  • Nucleotidases / metabolism*
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / chemistry*
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / metabolism*
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary


  • NAD
  • NADP
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
  • NAD kinase
  • NADP phosphatase
  • Nucleotidases