The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidases ERAP1 and ERAP2 contribute to generate HLA class I binding peptides. Recently, we have shown that the expression of these enzymes is high and coordinated (with each other and with HLA class I molecules) in immortalized B cells, but variable and imbalanced in human tumour cell lines of various non-lymphoid lineages. Herein, this issue was investigated in vivo by testing ERAP1 and ERAP2 expression in normal non-lymphoid tissues and their malignant counterparts. ERAP1 and ERAP2 were detected exclusively in the epithelial cells of over half of the tested normal tissues. Four ERAP1/ERAP2 phenotypes (+/+, -/-, +/- and -/+) were detected, and the presence of either or both enzymes was not necessarily associated with HLA class I expression. In more than 160 neoplastic lesions, the expression of either or both aminopeptidases was retained, lost (most frequently, particularly ERAP1) or acquired as compared to the normal counterparts, depending on the tumour histotype. The double-negative (-/-) phenotype was the most frequent, and significantly (P = 0.013) associated with a lack of detectable HLA class I antigens. In selected neoplastic lesions, ERAP1 and ERAP2 were also tested for their enzymatic (peptide-trimming) activities. Expression and function were found to correlate, indicating that immunohistochemistry detects active enzymes in vivo. Thus, dissociation in the expression of ERAP1, ERAP2 and HLA class I may already be present in some normal tissues, but malignant transformation causes additional losses, gains and imbalances in specific tumour histotypes, and these alter the peptide-trimming ability of tumour cells in vivo.