Structure and mode of action of clostridial glucosylating toxins: the ABCD model

Trends Microbiol. 2008 May;16(5):222-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2008.01.011. Epub 2008 Apr 18.


Toxins A and B, which are the major virulence factors of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, are the prototypes of the family of clostridial glucosylating toxins. The toxins inactivate Rho and Ras proteins by glucosylation. Recent findings on the autocatalytic processing of the toxins and analysis of the crystal structures of their domains have made a revision of the current model of their actions on the eukaryotic target cells necessary.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Bacterial Toxins / chemistry*
  • Bacterial Toxins / metabolism*
  • Clostridioides difficile / enzymology
  • Clostridioides difficile / metabolism*
  • Glucosyltransferases / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • toxB protein, Clostridium difficile
  • Glucosyltransferases
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins