For many years the cerebellum has been considered to serve as a coordinator of motor function. Likewise, for many years schizophrenia has been considered to be a disease that primarily affects the cerebrum. This review summarizes recent evidence that both these views must be revised in the light of emerging evidence about cerebellar function and the mechanisms of schizophrenia. Evidence indicating that the cerebellum plays a role in higher cortical functions is summarized. Evidence indicating that cerebellar abnormalities occur in schizophrenia is also reviewed. These suggest interesting directions for future research.