Thick bioceramic coatings like plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite have been shown to increase the overall tissue response and biomechanical fixation of dental implants. However, the presence and potential fracture of a bone-coating-metallic substrate interface at long times after implantation led these implants to fall from favor in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical fixation and biological response of Ca- and P-based, 20-50 nm thickness bioceramic deposition on a previously alumina-blasted/acid-etched Ti-6Al-4V implant surface in a dog model. Cylindrical alumina-blasted/acid-etched (AB/AE) (Control, n = 16), and Nanothickness bioceramic coated AB/AE(Nano, n = 16) implant surfaces were surgically placed in dogs proximal tibia and remained for 2 and 4 weeks in vivo. Following euthanization, the implants-in-bone were mounted in epoxy and pullout at a 0.5 mm/min rate. Following mechanical testing, the specimens were decalcified and processed (Hematoxylin and Eosin) for standard transmitted light microscopy evaluation. Percent bone-to-implant contact (BIC) to the pulled out implant surface was determined through computer software. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA at 95% level of significance and Tukey's post-hoc multiple comparisons. No significant differences in pullout force were observed (p > 0.88): 2W Control (212.08 +/- 42.96 N), 2W Nano (224.35 +/- 42.97 N), 4W Control (207.07 +/- 42.97 N), and 4W Nano (190.15 +/- 45.94 N). No significant differences in %BIC were observed (p > 0.94): 2W Control (72.66 +/- 8.51), 2W Nano (69.44 +/- 8.51), 4W Control (70.44 +/- 8.51), and 4W Nano (69.11 +/- 9.09). It is shown that 20-50 nm thickness bioceramic depositions onto previously alumina-blasted/acid-etched substrates did not improve the biomechanical fixation and the BIC at early implantation times, and studies concerning shorter and longer implantation times are recommended for confirmation or before a conclusion can be made.
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