Critical role of IL-2 and TGF-beta in generation, function and stabilization of Foxp3+CD4+ Treg

Eur J Immunol. 2008 Apr;38(4):912-5. doi: 10.1002/eji.200738109.


CD4+Foxp3+ Treg consist of two indistinguishable subsets induced in either the thymus or the periphery. In addition to their suppressive activities, IL-6 can convert natural Treg to pro-inflammatory IL-17-producing cells, but those induced with IL-2 and TGF-beta remain Treg. Unlike mouse CD4+CD25(-) cells, which rapidly become polyclonal Foxp3+CD25+ Treg when activated appropriately with IL-2 and TGF-beta, human T cells require multiple stimulations to become similar suppressor cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Cellular Senescence / immunology
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology
  • Interleukin-2 / immunology*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / immunology*


  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Interleukin-2
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta