Identification of SPAM messages using an approach inspired on the immune system

Biosystems. 2008 Jun;92(3):215-25. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystems.2008.02.006. Epub 2008 Mar 6.


In this paper, an immune-inspired model, named innate and adaptive artificial immune system (IA-AIS) is proposed and applied to the problem of identification of unsolicited bulk e-mail messages (SPAM). It integrates entities analogous to macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, modeling both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. An implementation of the algorithm was capable of identifying more than 99% of legitimate or SPAM messages in particular parameter configurations. It was compared to an optimized version of the naive Bayes classifier, which has been attained extremely high correct classification rates. It has been concluded that IA-AIS has a greater ability to identify SPAM messages, although the identification of legitimate messages is not as high as that of the implemented naive Bayes classifier.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Antigens / immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Biomimetics / methods*
  • Electronic Mail / classification*
  • Immune System / immunology*
  • Models, Biological*


  • Antigens