The blood eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) concentration is an important inverse risk factor for sudden cardiac death. However, it is not known what kinds of factors influence the EPA+DHA levels in the total phospholipid fraction in red blood cells (RBC EPA+DHA) in Japan, who regularly eat more fish with increasing age. Four hundred and fifty-six healthy individuals (320 men and 136 women, 18 to 70 years old) were recruited between 2002 and 2005. RBC EPA+DHA were measured by gas chromatography and questionnaires were administered. Multivariate analysis indicated that there were significant correlations between RBC EPA+DHA and (i) dietary EPA+DHA (beta=0.31), (ii) age (beta=0.33), (iii) gender (beta=-0.15) and (iv) physical activity (beta=-0.11) but not with body mass index or smoking.