A robust, highly sensitive system is described for monitoring the concentration of positron emitting radioisotopes contained within arterial blood continuously withdrawn during PET studies of the brain. Utilizing a specially designed flow-through bismuth germanate detector, gammas are more effectively counted, replacing the less efficient method of positron detection with plastic detectors. A polytetrafluoroethylene flow path system has been developed to overcome the problem of highly cohesive tracers adhering to the tubing material. Blood is drawn through the system from the radial artery by a medically approved peristaltic pump. Syringe samples of blood are extracted periodically downstream of the detector, for calibrations, plasma assays, metabolic analysis and physiological measurements. The complete system, including efficient heavy lead shielding is contained on a bedside trolley. Blood activity is continuously recorded throughout the PET investigations, and stored directly by the scanning computer, and additionally backed up on disc by a P.C.