The present study was undertaken to investigate whether celecoxib could regulate the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel current in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP) were involved in celecoxib's analgesia during acute incisional pain. Seventy-five rats were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was the control group receiving a placebo (sugar pill) 1 h before and 12 h after surgery (right hind paw incisional pain). Group B was the test group receiving celecoxib 30 mg/kg orally 1 h before and 12 h after surgery. Group C was the naive group receiving a sham operation. The changes in the mechanical withdrawal thresholds, PGE2 and CGRP concentration in incisional paw tissue and DRG, and total TTX-R sodium channel current density in small DRG neurons were investigated 1 h before the operation and 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h after the operation. The results showed both of a decrease in mechanical withdrawal thresholds and an increase of TTX-R sodium channel current density in DRG neurons in group B were significantly lower than those of group A at 24 h and 48 h after the operation (P<0.05). The increase in PGE2 and CGRP concentrations at incisional paw tissue and DRG neurons in group B were lower than those of groups A at 24 h and 48 h after the operation (P<0.05). This study indicates that: 1) celecoxib can inhibit TTX-R sodium channel current density in rat DRG neurons; 2) PGE2 and CGRP participate in celecoxib's analgesic effect on acute incisional pain.